Tuesday, 26 May 2015

Unfair Executions

Wrongful execution is a miscarriage of justice occurring when an innocent person is put to death by capital punishment, the "death penalty." Cases of wrongful execution are cited as an argument by opponents of capital punishment, while proponents suggest that the argument of innocence concerns the credibility of the justice system as a whole and does not solely undermine the use of death penalty.
A number of people are claimed to have been innocent victims of the death penalty. Newly available DNA evidence has allowed the exoneration and release of more than 17 death row inmates since 1992 in the United States, but DNA evidence is available in only a fraction of capital cases. Others have been released on the basis of weak cases against them, sometimes involving prosecutorial misconduct; resulting in acquittal at retrial, charges dropped, or innocence-based pardons. The Death Penalty Information Center (U.S.) has published a list of 10 inmates "executed but possibly innocent". At least 39 executions are claimed to have been carried out in the U.S. in the face of evidence of innocence or serious doubt about guilt.
In the UK, reviews prompted by the Criminal Cases Review Commission have resulted in one pardon and three exonerations for people executed between 1950 and 1953 (when the execution rate in England and Wales averaged 17 per year), with compensation being paid.
Colin Campbell Ross was hanged in Melbourne in 1922 for the murder of 12-year-old Alma Tirtschke the previous year in what became known as the Gun Alley Murder. The case was re-examined in the 1990s using modern techniques and Ross was eventually pardoned in 2008.
People's Republic of China
Weiqing An (Chinese: 魏清安, ?–1984, 23 years old) was a Chinese citizen who was executed for the rape of Kun Liu, a woman who had disappeared. The execution was carried out on 3 May 1984 by the Intermediate People's court. In the next month, Tian Yuxiu (田玉修) was arrested and admitted that he had committed the rape. Three years later, Wei was officially declared innocent.
Teng Xingshan (Chinese: 滕兴善, ?–1989) was a Chinese citizen who was executed for supposedly having raped, robbed and murdered Shi Xiaorong (石小荣), a woman who had disappeared. An old man found a dismembered body, and incompetent police forensics claimed to have matched the body to the photo of the missing Shi Xiaorong. The execution was carried out on 28 January 1989 by the Huaihua Intermediate People's court. In 1993, the previously missing woman returned to the village, saying she had been kidnapped to Shandong. The absolute innocence of the wrongfully executed Teng was not admitted until 2005.
Nie Shubin (Chinese: 聂树斌, 1974–1995) was a Chinese citizen who was executed for the rape and murder of Kang Juhua (康菊花), a woman in her thirties. The execution was carried out on April 27, 1995 by the Shijiazhuang Intermediate People's court. In 2005, ten years after the execution, Wang Shujin (Chinese: 王书金) admitted to the police that, in fact, he had committed the murder.
Qoγsiletu (Mongolian:qoγsiletu, Chinese:呼格吉勒图, 1977-1996) was an Inner Mongolian who was executed for the rape and murder of a young girl on June 10, 1996. On December 5, 2006, ten years after the execution, Zhao Zhihong (Chinese: 赵志红) wrote the Petition of my Death Penalty admitting that, in fact, he had committed the crime.
Jiang Guoqing (Chinese: 江國慶, 1975–1997) was a Taiwanese soldier who was executed by a military tribunal on August 13, 1997 for the rape and murder of a five-year-old girl. On January 28, 2011, over 13 years after the execution, Xu Rongzhou (Chinese: 許榮洲) admitted to the prosecutor that he had been responsible for the crime.
In 1660, in a series of events known as the Campden Wonder, an Englishman named William Harrison disappeared after going on a walk, near the village of Charingworth, in Gloucestershire. Some of his clothing was found slashed and bloody on the side of a local road. Investigators interrogated Harrison’s servant, John Perry, who eventually confessed that his mother and his brother had killed Harrison for money. Perry, his mother, and his brother were hanged. Two years later, Harrison reappeared, telling the incredibly unlikely tale that he had been abducted by three horsemen and sold into slavery in the Ottoman Empire. Though his tale was implausible, he indubitably had not been murdered by the Perry family.
Timothy Evans was tried and executed in 1950 for the murder of his wife and infant daughter. An official inquiry conducted 16 years later determined that it was Evans's fellow tenant, serial killer John Reginald Halliday Christie, who was responsible for the murder. Christie also admitted to the murder of Evans's wife, as well as five other women and his own wife. Christie may have murdered other women, judging by evidence found in his possession at the time of his arrest, but it was never pursued by the police. Evans was posthumously pardoned in 1966. The case had prompted the abolition of capital punishment in the UK in 1965.
Mahmood Hussein Mattan was executed in 1952 for the murder of Lily Volpert. In 1998 the Court of Appeal decided that the original case was, in the words of Lord Justice Rose, "demonstrably flawed". The family were awarded £725,000 compensation, to be shared equally among Mattan's wife and three children. The compensation was the first award to a family for a person wrongfully hanged.
Derek Bentley was a mentally challenged young man who was executed in 1953. He was convicted of the murder of a police officer during an attempted robbery, despite the facts that it was his accomplice who fired the gun and that Bentley was already under arrest at the time of the shooting. The accomplice who actually fired the fatal shot could not be executed due to his young age.
University of Michigan law professor Samuel Gross led a team of experts in the law and in statistics that estimated the likely number of unjust convictions. The study determined that at least 4% of people on death row were and are innocent. The research was peer reviewed and the prestigious Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published it, Gross has no doubt that some innocent people have been executed.
Statistics likely understate the actual problem of wrongful convictions because once an execution has occurred there is often insufficient motivation and finance to keep a case open, and it becomes unlikely at that point that the miscarriage of justice will ever be exposed. In the case of Joseph Roger O'Dell III, executed in Virginia in 1997 for a rape and murder, a prosecuting attorney argued in court in 1998 that if posthumous DNA results exonerated O'Dell, "it would be shouted from the rooftops that ... Virginia executed an innocent man." The state prevailed, and the evidence was destroyed.
Chipita Rodriguez was hanged in San Patricio County, Texas in 1863 for murdering a horse trader, and 122 years later, the Texas Legislature passed a resolution exonerating her.
Thomas and Meeks Griffin were executed in 1915 for the murder of a man involved in an interracial affair two years previously but were pardoned 94 years after execution. It is thought that they were arrested and charged because they were viewed as wealthy enough to hire competent legal counsel and get an acquittal.
Joe Arridy (April 15, 1915 – January 6, 1939) was a mentally disabled American man executed for rape and murder and posthumously granted a pardon. Arridy was sentenced to death for the murder and rape of a 15-year-old schoolgirl from Pueblo, Colorado. He confessed to murdering the girl and assaulting her sister. Due to the sensational nature of the crime precautions were taken to keep him from being hanged by vigilante justice. His sentence was executed after multiple stays on January 6, 1939, in the Colorado gas chamber in the state penitentiary in Canon City, Colorado. Arridy was the first Colorado prisoner posthumously pardoned in January 2011 by Colorado Governor Bill Ritter, a former district attorney, after research had shown that Arridy was very likely not in Pueblo when the crime happened and had been coerced into confessing. Among other things, Arridy had an IQ of 46, which was equal to the mental age of a 6-year-old. He did not even understand that he was going to be executed, and played with a toy train that the warden, Warden Roy Best, had given to him as a present. A man named Frank Aguilar had been executed in 1937 in the Colorado gas chamber for the same crime for which Arridy ended up also being executed. Arridy's posthumous pardon in 2011 was the first such pardon in Colorado history. A press release from the governor's office stated, "[A]n overwhelming body of evidence indicates the 23-year-old Arridy was innocent, including false and coerced confessions, the likelihood that Arridy was not in Pueblo at the time of the killing, and an admission of guilt by someone else." The governor also pointed to Arridy's intellectual disabilities. The governor said, “Granting a posthumous pardon is an extraordinary remedy. But the tragic conviction of Mr. Arridy and his subsequent execution on Jan. 6, 1939, merit such relief based on the great likelihood that Mr. Arridy was, in fact, innocent of the crime for which he was executed, and his severe mental disability at the time of his trial and execution."
George Stinney, a 12-year old black boy, was electrocuted in South Carolina in 1944 for the murder of two white girls, aged 7 and 11. He was the youngest person executed in the United States. More than 70 years later, a judge threw out the conviction, calling it a "great injustice."
Carlos DeLuna was executed in Texas in December 1989. Subsequent investigations cast strong doubt upon DeLuna's guilt for the murder of which he had been convicted.
Jesse Tafero was convicted of murder and executed via electric chair in May 1990 in the state of Florida for the murders of two Florida Highway Patrol officers. The conviction of a co-defendant was overturned in 1992 after a recreation of the crime scene indicated a third person had committed the murders.
Johnny Garrett of Texas was executed in February 1992 for allegedly raping and murdering a nun. In March 2004 cold-case DNA testing identified Leoncio Rueda as the rapist and murderer of another elderly victim killed four months earlier. Immediately following the nun's murder, prosecutors and police were certain the two cases were committed by the same assailant. The flawed case is explored in a 2008 documentary entitled The Last Word.
Cameron Todd Willingham was executed in February 2004 for murdering his three young children by arson at the family home in Corsicana, Texas. Nationally known fire investigator Gerald Hurst reviewed the case documents, including the trial transcriptions and an hour-long videotape of the aftermath of the fire scene, and said in December 2004 that "There's nothing to suggest to any reasonable arson investigator that this was an arson fire. It was just a fire." In 2010, the Innocence Project filed a lawsuit against the State of Texas, seeking a judgment of "official oppression".
In 2015, the Justice Department and the FBI formally acknowledged that nearly every examiner in an FBI forensic squad overstated forensic hair matches for two decades before the year 2000. 26 out of 28 forensic examiners overstated evidence of forensic hair matches in 268 trials reviewed, and 95% of the overstatements favored the prosecution. Those cases involve 32 cases in which defendants were sentenced to death.

Thursday, 26 July 2012

Dil Shova Shrestha - Mother of all infants, orphans and old people.

कुन मन्दिर मा जान्छौ यात्री, कुन मन्दिर मा जाने हो कुना सामाग्री पूजा गर्ने, साथ कसरी लाने हो कुन मन्दिर मा जान्छौ यात्री । । । हाडहरुको सुन्दर खाएमबिए, माम्स पिन्डको दिवार मस्तिस्क को सुन्को छाना, इन्द्रीयहरुको द्वार लता नदी का तरल तरङ्ग, मन्दिर आफु अपार । । । । । कुन मन्दिर मा जान्छौ यात्री । । । । । तती यात्री बिच सडकमा, ईश्वर हेर्दाछ साथ चुम्दछ ईश्वर काम सुनौला, गरी रहेको हाथ चुन्छ कि लक्ष्मी करले उस्ले, देबताहरुको माझ । । । । कुन मदिरा म जान्छौ यात्री । । । । पर्ख पर्ख हे जाउ समाउ, मानीसहरुको पाउ मलम लगाउ आर्तहरुको, चहर्याइरहेको घाउ मानीसहरु भई ईश्वरको त्यो, दिव्य मुहार हसाउ । । । कुन मन्दिर म जान्छौ यात्री । । । । सडक किनारा गाउछ ईश्वर, चराहरुको तनमा बोल्दछ ईश्वर मानिसहरुको, पिडा दुखेको गणमा दर्शन के देउ कही हृदयमा, चारमा चच्छुले तनमा । । । । कुन मन्दिर मा जान्छौ यात्री, कुन मन्दिर मा जाने हो कुना सामाग्री पूजा गर्ने, साथ कसरी लाने हो कुन मन्दिर मा जान्छौ यात्री । । । कुन मन्दिर मा जान्छौ यात्री । । । । Contact Details: 9841702176 4274730 4670165

Tuesday, 24 July 2012

Wife gives Husband a precious gift for Silver Wedding anniversary - One of her Kidneys

A wife gave her husband a silver wedding anniversary gift worth far more than any trinket or keepsake - one of her own kidneys. Nigel Bryant, 50, used to undergo punishing four-hour dialysis sessions three times a week at home in Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands. But his life was transformed after his wife Nicola, 48, offered him her kidney. Tests revealed the couple were a surprisingly good match and went under the knife in March.
'It was a fantastic way to make a difference to Nigel’s life,' Mrs Bryant said.
'It was our silver wedding anniversary last month and I wanted to do anything I could to make his life better.'
It’s still early days and Nigel has regular check-ups, but it’s made a positive difference.'He can eat more freely and has the time away from the dialysis machine - and the energy - to do things. It has benefited our whole family.' Project manager Nigel’s health problems began in 1993 when he was diagnosed with the bowel disorder Crohn’s disease.He was diagnosed with renal failure in 2007 and staff at Heartlands Hospital’s Castle Vale Renal Unit suggested Nicola might be able to donate a kidney.

The couple - parents to Charlotte, 16, and Sam, 18 - had the operation at Coventry’s Walsgrave Hospital in March. Nigel said: 'It’s given me a new lease of life not being tied to the dialysis machine. 'I was worried about doing it at first because of the risk to Nicola, but she was determined to go ahead and it was the best way forward in the end. 'It’s difficult for me to thank her - how do you say thanks for something like this? It’s probably the biggest commitment someone could make for someone else.'

Nicola, a business development manager at Birmingham City Council, said: 'It wasn’t a difficult decision. The thing with donating a kidney is that you choose when to have the operation. That was important as our children are at important stages of their education. '

If anything, had I known I could have done it earlier then I would have.' Karen Hodgson, live donor transplant co-ordinator at Heartlands Hospital, said: 'Donating a kidney is a major decision but living donation is on the increase in the UK. 'There is no guarantee a kidney transplant will work. However, living donation is overwhelmingly successful with 96 per cent working well in one year. 'There are more than 7,531 people in the UK currently needing an organ transplant of some kind. Only 33 per cent of people in the UK have joined the Organ Donation Register which is why it is so important to join the register and inform your family and friends of your wishes.'

(Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2176482/Mother-receives-life-saving-kidney-transplant-family-friend-secretly-puts-donor.html?ito=feeds-newsxml)